INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INDOOR GROWING OF PLANTS
Growing plants indoors is a separate science, even close to art. Plants such as orchids and violets, as well as other ornamental plants, grow and mature well in a controlled environment. Many enthusiasts, for whom cultivation was just a hobby, switched to professional cultivation and added many species to the range of cultivated plants. In order to grow a quality plant, it needs a certain environment and optimal conditions. In this guide we will present some highlights in breeding to help amateurs and professionals.
The methods presented here relate mainly to soilless cultivation. In soilless cultivation, the soil is replaced with various primers, stones and sterile substrates. The use of such substrates, which in themselves do not contain nutrients, helps to control what exactly, and in what quantities, takes a plant.
Conditions for hydroponic and indoor cultivation.
In the light period of cultivation, the temperature should be 20-27 degrees. In the dark - 18-21 degrees.
The optimal daily temperature, without raising the CO2 in the room, is 23 degrees. The optimal daily temperature in the presence of an increase in CO2 in the room is 24.5 degrees.
Temperature at the roots of plants
The optimum temperature is 20 degrees. When growing in pots in cold rooms, basements, first floors of blocks of flats, garages and the like, it is not recommended to put the pots directly on the ground, because this will drop the temperature in
root system, and this can lead to problems with the plant and slow its growth.
Temperature of the nutrient solution
The supplied solution should be heated to 19-22 degrees.
Humidity of the environment
Humidity in the room should be 40-65% in the vegetative part of cultivation and 40-60% during flowering. Excessive moisture creates conditions for the appearance of mold and other harmful microorganisms.
During the vegetative growth, the room is lit 18 hours, 6 hours of darkness. According to experts, the 18-hour photo period has the same effect on plants as the 24-hour. During growth, the plants need 12 hours of complete darkness. Sometimes, depending on the plant being grown, there are exceptions to this rule.
Type of light
Fluorescent lighting is recommended in the first stages of growth and in cloning. Halogen lighting, sodium lamps, also special, amplified fluorescent lamps in the vegetative phase of growth, as the optimal ratio of light would be 60% halogen, 40% - sodium lamps. Sodium lamps during flowering.
For stationary lamps: 400 watt sodium lamp under high pressure illuminates about 1sq. m area. 1000 watt lamp illuminates 2 square meters. Mechanisms for moving light can increase the illumination area of each lamp.
Measurement of light
Luminous flux is measured in lumens using a light meter. At the top of the plants, the light flux should not be less than 3000 lumens. With the help of a light meter it is good to determine the places in the greenhouse with low light. These are usually the corners of the greenhouse, or the lower parts around the pots. Low light leads to reduced yields and slow growth.
Reflecting light with the right materials helps to use it optimally, grow faster and increase yields. White foil is an excellent material for this purpose. The reflective foil is placed on the walls of the room and above the lamp itself. Aluminum foil and mirrors are one of the worst materials for reflecting light when looking, because they distribute light unevenly and at irregular angles.
Distance between the top of the plant and the light source
If the lamps are too close to the plants, it can seriously damage them. Halogen lamps, as well as sodium, emit a large amount of heat, so it is recommended to be half to one meter from the tops of plants, depending on the power of the lamp. More watts - more heat. Ordinary fluorescent lamps emit almost no heat, so they can be placed almost next to the plants, a distance of 10 to 40 centimeters is recommended, depending on the power, and the lamp itself should not touch parts of the plant. It is best to measure the temperature around the tops of the plants, it should not exceed 29 degrees.
The following substrates can be considered relatively sterile: coconut fiber, expanded clay, vermiculite, perlite.
Plants need oxygen, especially their own roots. For optimal supply of oxygen to the roots, it is recommended to build an aeropon system. Oxygen helps the plant to grow quickly.
The green part of the plant needs large amounts of carbon dioxide. The normal amount of CO2 in a room is about 400 per mille, the optimal amount to detect the plant in this room is about 1500 per mille. There are different ways to use these per mille - CO2 distributes, tablets, even ordinary materials such as sugar and yeast. In the case of a ventilation system, the operation of the CO2 distributor and the system must be adjusted so that the gas does not enter the ventilation directly.
Movement of air in the room
The air in the greenhouse must be in constant motion and this can be seen on the leaves of the plants. Each greenhouse or room must have at least one fan. For a larger room, the rule is simple - one fan is needed for every three 1000 watt lamps.
It is good to install ventilation in the greenhouses, which can change all the air in the room at different intervals.
Changing the light regime from 18/6 to 12/12 can speed up the flowering of orchids and other ornamental plants. After changing the regime, expect the plant to react to it for 1-2 weeks.
It is important to note that the dark period should be constant and uninterrupted, and the plants should not be lit in any way. Unstable lighting can lead to mutations, poor yields and return the plants to the vegetative stage.
Optimal Ph values of the nutrient solution
The optimal values are 5.8 - 6.3 Ph. If the values are outside this range, the plant does not receive and properly process the nutrients supplied to it.
Optimal values of the pH of the root system: 6.5.
Optimal content of hydroponic solution
1000-2000 per mille in the vegetative period, during flowering these values depend on the type, growing environment and phase of the plant.
In conclusion, we present 10 steps for using a hydroponic greenhouse
- Measure the total area
- Make sure your electrical system is fully functional and stable
- Clean and sterilize the room
- Adjust the ventilation system
- Find the walls with white / silver - reflective foil, prepare
- Reflectors for lamps
- Find the floor with waterproof fabric
- Prepare light sources and timers for them
- Prepare a grow system
- Prepare a security system
- Grow plants!
Plants need 24 basic elements for optimal growth and maturation. Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, the plant gets from water and air. The other elements of the plant are obtained through its roots in a form that you provide them.
Be interesting and give them the right substances in the right amounts.
Install your groove room
Let us first remind you of some basic things. You will have a vegetative room (with 18 hours of light) and a flowering room (with 12 hours of light). Flowering room (Temperature between 25 ° and 27 ° C and humidity between 40% and 60%) ......